i) 50- 100 number of plants are selected on the basis of their phenotype and are allowed to open pollinate. Now it is also used in self pollinated species. General combining ability and additive gene effects play predominant role in exploitation of these populations. Stadler in 1944, is based on the premise that if superior zygotes occur with a frequency of p2, superior gametes would occur with a frequency of p. The procedure involves crossing an elite line with a random sample of pollen of plants from a source population. Types of Mass Selection. 3) The selection cycle is usually of the two years. Hayes, F.D. Method of Plant Breeding in Cross Pollinated Plants – Recurrent Selection Recurrent Selection: The initial idea of recurrent selection was independently given by Hayes and Garber in 1919 and East and Jones in 1920. The cyclical selection was developed to increase the frequency of favorable genes for quantitative traits. A single cross is a hybrid progeny from a cross between two unrelated inbred. In this approach, first hybrid evaluation are of S2 or S3 lines. In this chapter we are concerned with the methods by which new varieties of self-pollinated crop plants originate. Under this model it should be possible to derive a pure line from the F1 which should be equal to F1 in the performance and thus this heterosis will be fixable. The simplest version of population breeding is the mass selection method applied to cross-pollinated species, in which the improved population is directly used as a cultivar. But the term recurrent selection was first coined by Hull in 1945. Breeding Methods in Cross Pollinated Crops The most important methods of breeding cross-pollinated species are (1) mass selection; (2) development of hybrid varieties; and (3) development of synthetic varieties. The F1 is backcrossed with A followed by selection of desirable traits of B and F1 is also backcrossed with B where selection for desirable traits of A is made. On the basis of the progeny performance, the best parental individuals are identified. The phenomenon of hybrid vigour, expressed particularly in the first generation (F1) following the crossing of cultivars or inbred lines, has been known for more than a hundred years. Cross-pollination studies became popular with academics and plant breeders in the early nineteenth century who were interested in vegetative vigour and potential economic significance of hybrid plants. Selection with Progeny Test-Progeny Selection: In this selection, plants are selected on the basis of their phenotype and subjected to progeny testing. What are the characters Mendel selected for his experiments on pea plant? This procedure developed as a direct outgrowth of studies of early testing first proposed by M.T. Plant breeding - Plant breeding - Breeding self-pollinated species: The breeding methods that have proved successful with self-pollinated species are: (1) mass selection; (2) pure-line selection; (3) hybridization, with the segregating generations handled by the pedigree method, the bulk method, or by the backcross method; and (4) development of hybrid varieties. Selected plants of population A are self-pollinated and crossed to plants of population B. Definition of Hybridization: The mating or crossing of two plants of dissimilar genotype is known as hybridization. 1. (ii) Making of all possible crosses among selected superior genotypes or top crossing with a varietal complex of screened base varieties. Shull (single crosses) and D.F. +(D x H)/n. In case of cross pollinated species the mass selected varieties are heterozygous and heterogeneous. The progeny for progeny test may be obtained by open-pollination, self-pollination, crossing with an open-pollinated variety, a hybrid or an inbred. 2. In simple recurrent selection a number of plants are self-pollinated in a source population in first year. This is a modification of pedigree method. A spectacular example of such divergence is provided by the monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewissii , which are pollinated … Are superior in exploitation of these populations assumed that the dominance is complete methods! Mode of Reproduction - selection of cross-pollinated crops selection method for cross pollinated plants cross-pollinated crops - Half-sib selection progeny! Superior and inferior progenies pollinate plants in the selfing and selection, grown... Defect that the synthetic may be avoided to certain extent by selecting large. In advanced generation clones, mass selections have been produced on commercial scale in India and.. 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